Thursday, March 17, 2011


The Rubber Ducky

(From Sydney Lumet’s and Paddy Chayevsky’s writings on the subject.)

I am going to rant about the "Rubber Ducky" theory of backstory for a bit. I’m using material from Sydney Lumet and Paddy Chayevsky, which were intended for screenwriters, but apply just as much for novelists.
The "Rubber Ducky" is Paddy Chayevsky's term for when the hero or villain, at a lull in the action, explains that he is the way he is because his mother took away his rubber ducky when he was three. It's always a nice scene, well acted, beautifully lit, with a powerfully written monolog that the writer spent days on. And totally unnecessary in most stories and overused… It usually comes from not trusting the reader’s or viewer’s intelligence to “get it”…

It’s also the source for many of those godawful “prologues” in newer writer’s manuscripts. It’s often their protagonist’s Rubber Ducky and as such is a total waste of paper and/or electrons.
The character's past may be crucial to your story. Batman is haunted by the murder of his parents by a mugger when he was small. That's why he likes to dress up in latex and beat the tar out of muggers. In The Terminator, the hero's past, which is in the future, is the hellish future of the entire human race. It sets up the stakes for the whole movie. In movies like these, we do need to know about the hero's past. You will need to keep coming back to that past, to give it the weight it deserves. Both Batman and The Terminator, in fact, start with the hero's backstory before getting into the main story. 

But if all you're trying to do is give your hero more emotional depth, for the sake of emotional depth, without integrating his backstory into your story, you are running the risk of awakening the dread Ducky. 

The strongest way to create a sense of character is to give the character things to do and say on screen that give us a sense of a person. If the character's personality doesn't leap off the page, readers will feel that the character is flat. And personality is created by how he or she reacts to the obstacles encountered in the struggle. How he or she is proactive in resolving the story problem and isn’t simply reactive or passive. Development executives will ask to know more about the protagonist's past. You will surrender to the urge to put in a Rubber Ducky. Then if the picture becomes a go, the actors will get attached to the Rubber Ducky scene, because it shows they can Act. So the Ducky stays in the picture. (To its detriment.) In novels, the same thing happens when the characters are seen as flat. Many times, in my classes and in private coaching of novelists, I’ve advised the writer that their protagonist just wasn’t interesting. Almost always, the first reaction is to give him/her a Rubber Ducky, thinking that giving him some traumatic experience in his or her past will render him a more interesting character. Except… it doesn’t. Way back then, when the Ducky took place, sure, that may have been interesting. That was then, this is now. The Ducky is ancient history. The reader knows the character survived so it loses most of its emotional punch.

Almost always the core reason the character is flat is because the author is delivering him one of two ways. One, he gives us a character who is predominantly in his mind. We’re mostly witnessing the protagonist’s thoughts. He’s just not doing anything but… musing. Musing doesn’t affect the emotion of a reader. Only one thing affects the readers’ emotions—the character acting on his/her behalf to resolve a problem. With… action. The second way the protagonist is rendered uninteresting is that he engages in a lot of dialog. He “solves” story problems by… talking. It’s the same thing, basically, as a character ruminating about in his head. The only difference is the writer is delivering the same thing by having the character say those thoughts out loud. To another character. While dialog is part of action, that brand of dialog isn’t. This is a common fault of beginning screenwriters as well as novelists. Newer screenwriters, in particular, have bought into a myth that movies are mostly dialog. Plays are, but screenplays really aren’t. A successful movie works the same way as a successful novel. The audience wants to see the characters doing something. Sometimes, that “something” is dialog, but far less than many think. A movie that depends on heavy doses of dialog has a name. It’s called a “talking heads” movie. A novel that depends on heavy doses of dialog has a name as well. It’s called “unpublished.” Or, “self-published.”

A too-obvious Ducky cheapens the character. Kurt Russell's character Jack O'Neil in Stargate is suicidal because his young son killed himself accidentally with a pistol he left around the house. To make us care more about his otherwise unpleasant character, O'Neil delivers a small monologue to James Spader's character Daniel Jackson. It is important to the picture that O'Neil is suicidal, but not why; and given O'Neil's contempt for Daniel Jackson, it's unlikely that he would open up to him about his guilt and shame. The emotional truth of the situation is that Daniel Jackson would never know why O'Neil is so willing to die. It might have been more emotionally truthful for the movie never to relay this information. But I wouldn't be surprised if Kurt Russell wanted the audience to know that his character had a good reason for being such a bastard. Actors want you to have sympathy for them.

A good example of a Ducky that never comes up is Thelma and Louise. It becomes clear over the course of the movie that something terrible happened to Louise (Susan Sarandon) in Texas; that's why the two women take the long way around to the Mexican border. You begin to realize that she must have been raped in Texas, and then disbelieved in court. That she probably shot her attacker which was why she ended up in jail. But Louise never says anything explicit about it in the movie, and that makes her backstory all the stronger. It’s only delivered via hints. And, the first hint doesn’t even appear until more than a third of the way into the movie.

If development execs are asking you for the Ducky, the screenplay isn't working for them. Don't give them the Ducky, but do focus your scenes so they show the character. Go through your script again, scene by scene, and make sure that every time the hero acts, it shows us who he is. Make sure you communicate how he feels about what he's doing, and give him a fresh way of doing it, one someone else wouldn't have... If an agent or an editor gives you the same note, use the same strategy for making the protagonist interesting—one the reader will want to follow. Not to see his brilliant and riveting thoughts… but to see how he struggles against huge odds to gain his objective. And in original ways. Then, you’ll have an interesting character.

Sidney Lumet said:

In the early days of television, when the "kitchen sink" school of realism held sway, we always reached a point where we "explained" the character. Around two-thirds of the way through, someone articulated the psychological truth that made the character the person he was. [Paddy] Chayefsky and I used to call this the "rubber-ducky" school of drama: "Someone once took his rubber ducky away from him, and that's why he's a deranged killer." That was the fashion then, and with many producers and studios it still is. 

I always try to eliminate the rubber-ducky explanations. A character should be clear from his present actions. And his behavior as the picture goes on should reveal the psychological motivations. If the writer has to state the reasons, something's wrong in the way the character has been written.

And finally…

The same principles apply to memoir. A memoir that is based mostly on the author’s own Rubber Ducky, is one that is probably going to end up largely a victim story. Unfortunately, those are pretty much over. That becomes a “me” story and we’re not much interested in those these days.

Create your characters in the “present” of your story. Give him or her a compelling problem and put obstacles in their path and give them really cool and interesting (and unexpected) ways to overcome those obstacles. Keep out of their heads as much as possible. Not entirely—just less than you might be tempted to. Not as much going on in there as you might think…

Hope this helps!

Blue skies,

Sydney Lumet


Raquel Byrnes said...

This was great. I couldn't put my finger on it until you explained it so clearly. The rubber ducky principle...I'm tweeting this.

Les Edgerton said...

Thanks, Raquel!

Helen Ginger said...

This is the first I've heard of the term "rubber ducky." It makes sense. (Love screenwriting books - I'm reading Save the Cat! Strikes Back right now.)

This is making me think about the book I'm working on now. Something from her past is critical to the story and to her motivation. And I do show it in a brief flashback. I'm now wondering if it should be shown. I'm having trouble seeing it without that scene in the book since it show why she buys a gun and heads home.

Les Edgerton said...

Hi Helen,
My favorite example of how to show a necessary rubber ducky or backstory is in Thelma & Louise. When Louise shoots and kills Harlan and the struggle escalates, if she wouldn't have had a compelling reason to kill him when the situation was effectively diffused, it would have become a mindless what my wife calls "chasey-fighty" movie. There was just no logical reason to kill him at that point... unless Louise had a great reason to do so. Which she does. Her "rubber ducky" moment. Which is never revealed, but is hinted at several times. The first, when they're on the run and she pointedly tells Thelma to find an escape route that doesn't go through Texas. The same thing is repeated (briefly) throughout. She never does tell her why, but we "get" it that she had a similar situation in her past that had ended badly. A lesser writer than Callie Khouri would have had the women sitting in a motel room having a "heart-to-heart" while Louise related the whole episode to Thelma. Not Khouri! Look at how she reveals to the audience Louise's rubber ducky/backstory and use that for a model. Simply great writing, imo.

Lily Mulholland said...

Well, I don't have a rubber ducky in my story, but I do have a flat character! She doesn't do that much musing, but she is too passive. Need more action!!!

Les Edgerton said...

Lily, I'm a buttinsky... so forgive me if I'm out of line, but what I usually recommend in a situation like this, is to throw an unexpected and big obstacle at your protagonist. For instance, in Thelma & Louise, the guy tries to rape Thelma, Louise defuses the situation... and then shoots him, thereby creating a totally unexpected and huge obstacle. In David Madden's The Suicide's Wife, the protagonist is trying to get her life back together after her husband's death and things are hard, but she's not all that interesting... until she goes to get her driver's license, a supposedly benign task... and the policeman who administers the test takes a dislike to her and refuses to pass her. Now, she's got a huge obstacle nobody (including her) saw coming, and it's this obstacle that will occupy her the rest of the novel. I'm using two very different scenarios, but cut out of the same bolt of cloth since I have no idea if your novel is an action-based one such as T&L or a low-concept one such as Suicide, but the principle is the same in both (and in all stories). Hope this can perhaps help give you an idea for your story.

Unknown said...

Reading this inspired post, the film Falling Down sprang to mind. It's been a while since I saw it, but I remember a series of desperate actions by a man who clearly had had enough. I don't think the movie ever explained his initial motivation, ie, no ducky, but I could be wrong.

Anne Gallagher said...

Another post to make me think.

It hurts so much.

Thanks a lot.

Sally Clements said...

Great post, Les. I think I'll stick another post it note on my computer with Rubber Ducky, kill it! to keep me focused on keeping the story real, and avoiding the 'easy option' of having my characters have an explanation fest!

Les Edgerton said...

Thanks for the film tip, Euclid. I'm putting it on my "to rent" list.

Anne, I visited your blog awhile ago and found out we've met! I'm so sorry I didn't recall it (my Halfzeimer's at work again...). And, you're right--so much to absorb, so little time!

Glad you found it helpful, Sally. Just be careful you don't post so many Post-Its on your screen that you can't see it...

Anonymous said...

I've rarely found a prologue I liked. Now I understand why. Great post.

BrianE424 said...

Excellent post, Les. I'd never thought in terms of a "rubber ducky." Thanks! Another tool hopefully my mind can grab and use sometime.
A rubber ducky would seem to be the opposite of a MacGuffin? Which I think Hitchcock utilized a lot--a motivation kept secret from his movies' viewers. Like in the Maltese Falcon, the falcon is really just a lead bird--worthless.
Probably the best rubber ducky in a movie would have to be Rosebud, in Citizen Kane since it's not revealed till the very end, am I right?
But you are right about not using mostly, I think. Orson Welles being a genius and all that, right? So thanks for the warning!